• Samad Said - Janda Setinggan

    Katanya: Derita itu aku. Dirinya cemas diterjah usia dalam kabus belasungkawa, dia tergigau hampir seminggu diancam lipan, angin dan debu yang sama. Desa bahagia, derita.

  • Samad Said - Nikmat

    Segala yang dihasrat, tapi tak didapat adalah nikmat yang paling padat.

  • Samad Said - Ombak

    Ombak yang menjamah kakiku sekali takkan dapat kukenali lagi..

  • Samad Said - Bahasa Terindah

    Sesudah demikian lama dicintai, sukarlah dilupakan. Inti pengalaman, kepedihan; akar kerinduan keresahan… Memang begitu banyak diperlukan kekuatan, kepangkalan batin, rakit ditambatkan bara kenangan dikuatkan .

  • Samad Said - Tetamu Senja

    Kita datang ini satu roh satu jasad, Bila pulang nanti bawa bakti padat berkat, Kita datang ini satu roh satu jasad Bila pulang nanti bawa bakti padat berkat .

Jika melepasi umur 40 tahun

Petikan kuliah subuh 19 Jan 2018, Surau Al Islah, Bandar Tasik Kesuma

حَتَّى إَذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَبَلَغَ أَرْبَعِيْنَ سَنَةً قَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِى أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِى أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَى وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَصْلِحْ لِى فِى ذُرِّيَّتِى إِنِّى تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَإِنِّى مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ
"Apabila dia telah dewasa dan usianya sampai empat puluh tahun, ia berdoa, “Ya Tuhanku, tunjukkanlah aku jalan untuk mensyukuri nikmat Engkau yang telah Engkau berikan kepadaku dan kepada ibu bapaku dan supaya aku dapat berbuat amal yang soleh yang engkau redhai; berilah kebaikan kepadaku dengan (memberi kebaikan) kepada anak cucuku. Sesungguhnya aku bertaubat kepada Engkau dan sesungguhnya aku termasuk orang-orang muslim.”

(al-Ahqaf: 15)

Pada usia inilah manusia mencapai puncak kehidupannya baik dari segi fizikal, intelektual, emosi, mahupun spiritualnya. Benar-benar telah meninggalkan usia mudanya dan melangkah ke usia dewasa yang sebenar.

Doa yang terdapat dalam ayat tersebut dianjurkan untuk dibaca oleh mereka yang berusia 40 tahun dan ke atas. Di dalamnya terkandung penghuraian yang jelas bahawa mereka; telah menerima nikmat yang sempurna, kecenderungan untuk beramal yang positif, telah mempunyai keluarga yang harmoni, kecenderungan untuk bertaubat dan kembali kepada Allah.

Pada ayat yang lain, firman Allah;

أَوَلَمْ نُعَمِّرْكُمْ مَا يَتَذَكَّرُ فِيْهِ مَنْ تَذَكَّرَ وَجَاءَكُمُ النَّذِيْرُ
"Apakah Kami tidak memanjangkan umurmu dalam tempoh yang cukup untuk berfikir bagi orang-orang yang mahu berfikir, dan (apakah tidak) datang kepadamu pemberi peringatan?"
(al-Fathir: 37)

Menurut Ibnu Abbas, Hasan al-Bashri, al-Kalbi, Wahab bin Munabbih, dan Masruq, yang dimaksud dengan “umur panjang dalam tempoh yang cukup untuk berfikir” dalam ayat tersebut tidak lain adalah ketika berusia 40 tahun.

Menurut Ibn Kathir, ayat ini memberikan petunjuk bahawa manusia apabila menjelang usia 40 tahun hendaklah memperbaharui taubat dan kembali kepada Allah dengan bersungguh2.

Apabila itu berlaku menjelang usia 40 tahun, maka Allah memberikan janjiNya dalam ayat selepas itu: (maksudnya) Kematangan.

Usia 40 tahun adalah usia matang untuk kita bersungguh-sungguh dalam hidup. Mengumpulkan pengalaman, menajamkan hikmah dan kebijaksanaan, membuang kejahilan ketika usia muda, lebih berhati-hati, melihat sesuatu dengan hikmah dan penuh penelitian. Maka tidak hairan tokoh-tokoh pemimpin muncul secara matang pada usia ini. 

Bahkan Nabi s.a.w, seperti yang disebut oleh Ibn ‘Abbas:

“Dibangkitkan Rasulullah s.a.w pada usia 40 tahun” (riwayat al-Bukhari).
Nabi Muhammad saw. diutus menjadi nabi tepat pada usia 40 tahun. Begitu juga dengan nabi2 yang lain, kecuali Nabi Isa as. dan Nabi Yahya as.

Menurut Ibnu Qayyim Al-Jauziyah usia manusia diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 (empat) tahap, iaitu
  1. Kanak-kanak ( sejak lahir hingga akil baligh )
  2. Muda atau syabab ( sejak akil baligh hingga 40 tahun )
  3. Dewasa ( 40 tahun hingga 60 tahun )
  4. Tua atau syaikhukhah ( 60 tahun hingga mati )

Usia 40 tahun adalah usia ketika manusia benar-benar meninggalkan masa mudanya dan beralih kepada masa dewasa penuh. Kenyataan yang paling menarik pada usia 40 tahun ini adalah meningkatnya minat seseorang terhadap agama sedangkan semasa mudanya jauh sekali dengan agama. Seolah-olah macam satu fitrah di usia ini ramai yang mula menutup aurat dan mendekati kuliah-kuliah agama.

Salah satu keistimewaan usia 40 tahun tercermin dari sabda Rasulullah saw.,

"Seorang hamba muslim bila usianya mencapai 40 tahun, Allah akan meringankan hisabnya (perhitungan amalnya). Jika usianya mencapai 60 tahun, Allah akan memberikan anugerah berupa kemampuan kembali (bertaubat) kepadaNya. Bila usianya mencapai 70 tahun, para penduduk langit (malaikat) akan mencintainya. Jika usianya mencapai 80 tahun, Allah akan menetapkan amal kebaikannya dan menghapus amal keburukannya. Dan bila usianya mencapai 90 puluh tahun, Allah akan mengampuni dosa-dosanya yang telah lalu dan dosa-dosanya yang dahulu, Allah juga akan memberikan pertolongan kepada anggota keluarganya, serta Allah akan mencatatnya sebagai tawanan Allah di bumi. (riwayat Ahmad)

Hadis ini menyebut usia 40 tahun paling awal memiliki komitmen terhadap penghambaan kepada Allah swt. sekaligus konsisten terhadap Islam, maka Allah swt. akan meringankan hisabnya. Mendapat keistimewaan berupa hisabnya diringankan. Tetapi umur 40 tahun merupakan saat harus berhati2 juga. Ibarat waktu, orang yang berumur 40 tahun mungkin sudah masuk senja.

Abdullah bin Abbas ra. dalam suatu riwayat berkata, “Barangsiapa mencapai usia 40 tahun dan amal kebajikannya tidak mantap dan tidak dpt mengalahkan amal keburukannya, maka hendaklah ia bersiap-siap ke neraka.” 

Imam asy-Syafi’i tatkala mencapai usia 40 tahun, beliau berjalan sambil memakai tongkat. Jika ditanya, jawab beliau, “Agar aku ingat bahwa aku adalah musafir. Demi Allah, aku melihat diriku sekarang ini seperti seekor burung yang dipenjara di dalam sangkar. Lalu burung itu lepas di udara, kecuali telapak kakinya saja yang masih tertambat dalam sangkar. Komitmenku sekarang seperti itu juga. Aku tidak memiliki sisa2 syahwat untuk menetap tinggal di dunia. Aku tidak berkenan sahabat-sahabatku memberiku sedikit pun sedekah dari dunia. Aku juga tidak berkenan mereka mengingatkanku sedikit pun tentang hiruk pikuk dunia, kecuali hal yang menurut syara’ lazim bagiku. Diantara aku dan dia ada Allah.”

Lantas, apa yang harus kita lakukan ketika menginjak usia 40 tahun?
  1. Meneguhkan tujuan hidup
  2. Tidak daya spiritual
  3. Menjadikan uban sebagai peringatan
  4. Memperbanyak bersyukur
  5. Menjaga makan dan tidur
  6. Menjaga istiqamah dalam ibadah.

Jika ada yang mengatakan bahawa: "Life began at forty", saya cenderung berpendapat kehidupan yang dimaksudkan ialah kehidupan terarah kepada mendekatkan diri kepada penciptaNya dengan sebenar-benarnya. Dari sirah juga mnunjukkab umur 50 adalah umur jihad, perjuangn kbnaran n mmpertahankn Islam mnuju kmenangn atau syahid.

Tetapi satu perkara yang kita harus sentiasa sedar bahawa kematian memanggil kita bila-bila masa tanpa tanda, tanpa alamat dan tanpa mengira usia. Jika kita beranggapan harus menunggu usia 40 tahun untuk baru memulakan kehidupan yang dimaksudkan di atas, maka rugi dan sia-sia lah hidup kita jika umur kita tidak panjang.

Maksud sabda Nabi Muhammad S.A.W ," Orang yang bijak adalah orang yang selalu mengingati mati'.
Share:

Q3: Spatial variability analysis is mostly use in precision agriculture. Discuss how spatial variability can use to enhance the modern agriculture practice compare to conventional.



Precision Agriculture is a collection of agricultural practices that focus on specific areas of the field at a particular moment in time. This is opposed to more traditional practices where the various crop treatments, such as irrigation, application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides were evenly applied to the entire field, ignoring any variability within the field. Having information on potential crop yield at an early stage, is very beneficial for the farmer, but also for countries that heavily rely on agricultural production, to satisfy the national needs for the crops and also for income through exports. There is lot of factor can affect the yield of the crop such as soil type, chlorophyll content, watering and irrigation, fertilizer application and agriculture practice itself. Some data, such as soil moisture, vegetation cover, and chlorophyll content can be measured through remote sensing (RS). Other soil properties however, require sampling of soil cores and analysis of those samples in a lab such as phosphorus (P) contamination, Potassium (K) and soil acidity (pH).  As long as the location of the samples is recorded through a GPS, it is possible to create a soil map of the field in GIS system. Then the soil map will show the distribution for each characteristic of the soil. Once we have collect all the necessary data (variable)from remote sensing, soil data from lab, we can now compile the data in GIS platform to study the relationship between those data.

There is a strong correlation between data such as soil type and watering system, and watering system and chlorophyll content. Based on the data, we can create the spatial variability model and study the correlation between each variable (data). Base on this model, we can adjust the variable (data) in according to the crop status. For example, we already know soil (variable) characteristic in the crop field, so we can adjust the fertilizer application based on the suitability of soil characteristic to supply the nutrient to the crop base on their need. So, the fertilizer apply is only on the curtain area needed compare to conventional practice that apply the same fertilizer for entire field area.

Share:

Q2: Remote sensing has been widely used in many application and industry sector. Discuss every platform of remote sensing can benefit the agriculture industry related to temporal and resolution factor.


Satellite platform

The satellite platform is the most common remote sensing system that people know. The satellite is a vehicle that carry the payload (sensor) and place on the orbit. There so many type of orbit for satellite. Most remote sensing satellite use Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Type of satellite remote sensing such as Landsat-TM, SPOT, IKONOS, Quickbird and many other else. These satellite carry the sensor (camera) that scan and capture the imagery of the earth surface. Most of remote sensing satellite carry the multispectral sensor covering from visible light spectrum (Red, Green & Blue) and near infra-red (NIR) spectrum. The satellite can capture the image of the earth surface in large area. For example, SPOT satellite can capture the earth surface imagery in 60sqkm in a single time with 5-meter spatial resolution. The spectral resolution of SPOT satellite is covering from visible light and near infra-red spectrum make it useful for vegetation and agriculture study. The revisit time for SPOT satellite is within 2 or 3 days depending on latitude of the orbit. The keys of vegetation and agriculture crop study using remote sensing data is Vegetation Indices (VI).

There is so many research done in vegetation and agriculture study base on VI. The agriculture study can be done using SPOT satellite for huge crop area such as oil palm, rubber, soybean, corn and grain due to capability of the satellite to carry multispectral resolution sensor. However, the agriculture study using satellite image cannot be a very detail up to individual crop due to spatial resolution limits. And also, due to cloud cover contamination especially in Malaysia region. The temporal resolution or revisit time are also limit the analysis of crop monitoring study especially for short term crop planting like paddy, corn and other.

Aircraft platform (airborne & drone)

Nowadays, the optical sensor technology has evolved from big DSLR camera to small digital camera that can be attach on the small aircraft or remote control aircraft. Using drone as a platform to carry the sensor is now widely use in the agriculture industry. The drone can be program and set to fly above the crop field based on coordinate given to the drone autopilot. Most of the drone can fly around 30-45 minute and covering the small crop area around 30-40 hectares’ subject to altitude of the drone fly. Most of the drone imagery can give a very good spatial resolution compare to satellite platform. With a very sharp imagery capture by drone, it is really suitable to do the vegetation study and agriculture crop monitoring. Since the imagery is very sharp, we can identify and analyse every single crop (subject to type of crop) for example is oil palm. Also, the drone imagery is not limited to cloud cover. The farmer can identify the single oil palm tree using drone imagery. Other benefit using drone, we can rapidly monitor the crop growing stages and study the crop physiology using multispectral sensor.

Terrestrial remote sensing platform.

Terrestrial remote sensing platform is most unknown remote sensing technology. Not many people realise that some device such as Green Seeker is one of the remote sensing tool. The green seeker tool is use to identify the individual crop manually on the ground. It is very useful device to identify the disease and crop healthy. The green seeker device is attach with Red and Near Infra-Red (NIR) sensor to measure the amount of reflectance from Red spectrum and NIR spectrum. This reading of reflectance is used to measure the vegetation indices from the crop leaves. The measurement can directly be made using green seeker device. The farmer can directly know current condition of their crop either enough nutrient or not, and healthy and infected by disease. However, the challenge using this device, the farmer has manually scan the crop individually in the field. To do the manually checking using this device would is not applicable for huge area of crop and will increase the cost for labour and time consuming. Mostly, this device can only be used as a references or baseline to compare the result of study using drone imagery or satellite imagery.

There is an algorithm and relationship between the measurement of vegetation indices (VI) value from green seeker device and drone or satellite imagery vegetation indices (VI). This analysis can be done using spatial variable analysis in precision agriculture study. In Europe country, the sensor is attach to the farm tractor to monitor the crop status rapidly during the growing stage in order to maximize the crop yield. This sensor is also functioning as green seeker device. It measures the vegetation indices value of the crop and give the direct result to the farmer about the condition of the crop.

Share:

Q1: Remote sensing can be used for crop status study. Discuss three possible outcomes of remote sensing can be used in precision crop management and benefit to farmers.



Nutrient deficiency analysis

Lack of certain nutrients stops the plant from growing normally. Certain nutrients which are directly or indirectly related with the production of chlorophyll, have a distinctive effect on the colour of the leaves. Nitrogen deficiency for example, first causes the yellowing of the leaf area around the veins and progressively the yellow area extends to the rest of the leaf, slowly turning into red and then brown colour. Manganese deficiency first affects the newer leaves, which grow near the top of the plant canopy. On the other hand, nitrogen deficiency tends to affect the older leaves which are found at the lower part of the plant, near the soil.
Plants have a particular way to reflect the electromagnetic radiation. This unique characteristic is known as the vegetation's spectral signature. Reflectance of vegetation is very low in the blue band and red band of the electromagnetic spectrum, are also call as wavelength. The reflectance of electromagnetic spectrum slightly higher in the green band and very high in the near infra-red band. With remote sensing data, we can directly estimate how much chlorophyll there is in a plant. By combining more than one bands of the recorded remote sensing data, we can create vegetation indices and use them to estimate crop status. Depending on the visible and near-infrared reflectance, the produced vegetation indices give us an indication on the amount of chlorophyll present in the plants. The amount of chlorophyll has strong correlation with amount of nutrient. The healthy leave with green colour have enough nitrogen and high reflectance from near infra-red band compare to other band. We can use the NDVI method to map the crop field and identify the lack nutrient area in the field. So, the farmer can use the output of NDVI analysis to supply the nutrient for the needed area. As a result, it can help the farmer to reduce the cost and amount of fertilizer to apply in the field.

Water stress analysis in the crop field

Like many organisms, plants require water to survive. In addition to the water being used in essential biochemical processes, water is the "means of transportation" for nutrients from the soil to every part of the plant. Water enters the plant through the roots, travels through the main stalk and the branches, eventually reaching the leaves. All the biological processes taking place within a plant, produce heat. The transpiring water, captures that heat and removes it from the plant when it transpires through the leaves. When there is not enough water and the plant is under stress, it cannot lose heat through transpiration fast enough and as a result, the plant's temperature increases. In general, this increase in temperature can be detected with thermal sensor of remote sensing, by using parts of the spectrum that are sensitive to heat.  By using thermal data, we can map out the heat produce by the crop in the field. As a result, the farmer can start to manage their irrigation to the specific region that are lack of water. Situation in Malaysia, not all farmer really aware about the water stress since Malaysia have enough rainfall annually in average. However, there is a dry period in every year and can cause the water stress on the crop especially for on the hilly area.

Identify plants disease and pest

In addition to identifying plants under stress from lack of nutrients or water, remote sensing can also assist in protecting the plants from potential attacks of pests, fungi or bacteria. By combining agricultural knowledge with remotely sensed data, it is possible to have early warning and prevent a pest or a disease from affecting the crops, by taking appropriate action at an early stage. In general, healthy plants will reflect high amount of electromagnetic spectrum in near infra-red band due to chlorophyll content in the leaves. As we know, chlorophyll is use for photosynthesis process for plant to grow. Using remote sensing data, we can measure and identify the chlorophyll content and leave area index (LAI) based on multispectral satellite imagery. The green leave will reflect 60% of the near infra-red electromagnetic spectrum compare to visible light spectrum. By using the ratio between near infra-red spectrum and visible light (Red) spectrum, we can measure the measure the vegetation indices. By using the normalize differences vegetation index (NDVI), we can identify and distinguish between the healthy crop and problematic crop. Healthy crop will reflect very well in near infra-red part of spectrum.

The NDVI value is ranges from 0 to 1. The healthy crop will have higher NDVI value, (0.7 to 0.9) and near to 1 subject to crop type and leave structure. Meanwhile, the lower NDVI value ranges from 0.3 to 0.5 is consider as non-healthy leave or low leaf area index (LAI). Base on the agriculture experience, if the NDVI value is low on the curtain corner of the crop field or near to boundary, it may be due to pest attack. If the NDVI value is low that shows the non-healthy leave in the middle or spotted inside the crop field, it may be cause by disease or fungi infection. Take into consideration as the soil profile and water irrigation for the crop field is in the same condition. Than we can assume the lower NDVI value area is subject to disease or pest attack to the crop. The farmer can only focus to the lower NDVI value area and do the ground verification. It will benefit the farmer in term of time to check the whole crop area, and also help the farmer to combating the disease or pest base on the problematic area.

Share:

Labels

Teman Blog

About Me

My photo

Love myself I do. Not everything, but I love the good as well as the bad. I love my crazy lifestyle, and I love my hard discipline. I love my freedom of speech and the way my eyes get dark when I'm tired. I love that I have learned to trust people with my heart, even if it will get broken. I am proud of everything that I am and will become. (Johnny Weir)

Pengikut